• Legislature The Legislature of Assam is unicameral, consisting of the Assam Legislative Assembly (Asom Bidhan Sabha). The House is composed of 126 members all of.whom are elected directly on the basis of adult franchise and has a normal term of five years. In order to ensure proper representation of minorities — scheduled castes and tribes eight and sixteen seats respectively are reserved in the House for these sections of the population. The Speaker, elected by the members of the House from amongst them or in his absence, the Deputy Speaker, elected likewise, is the guardian and the custodian of the rights and privileges of the House. As per the constitutional provisions the Legislature is fully autonomous and has the full scope to discharge its functions of supervising and controlling the administration and expenditure of the State. While the members can command effective control over the affairs of the State through different types of debates and discussions on the floor of the House, more detailed control is exercised through the Legislative committees.

Assembly Constituencies of Assam

1. Ratabari (SC)  2. Patharkandi  3. Karimganj North  4. Karimganj South  5. Badarpur  6. Hailakandi   7. Katlicherra  8. Algapur  9. Silchar  10. Sonai  11. Dholai (SC)  12. Udarbond  13. Lakhipur  14. Barkhola  15. Katigora  16. Haflong (ST)  17. Bokajan (ST)  18. Howraghat (ST)  19. Diphu (ST)  20. Baithalangso (ST)  21. Mankachar  22. Salmara South  23. Dhubri  24. Gauripur 25. Golakganj  26. Bilasipara West 27. Bilasipara East 28. Gossaigaon 29. Kokrajhar West (ST) 30. Kokrajhar East (ST) 31. Sidli (ST) 32. Bongaigaon 33. Bijni 34. Abhayapuri North 35. Abhyaapuri Soth 36. Dudhnai (ST) 37. Goalpara East 38. Goalpara West 39. Jaleswar 40. Sorbhog 41. Bhabanipur 42. Patacharkuchi  43. Barpeta 44. Jania 45. Baghbor 46. Sarukhetri 47. Chenga 48. Boko (SC) 49. Chaygaon 50. Palasbari 51. Jalukbari 52. Dispur 53. Guwahati East 54. Guwahati West 55. Hajo 56. Kamalpur 57. Rangiya 58. Tamulpur 59. Nalbari 60. Barkhetri 61. Dharmapur 62. Barama (ST) 63. Chapaguri (ST) 64. Panery 65. Kalaigaon 66. Sipajhar 67. Mangaldoi (SC) 68. Dalgaon 69. Udaiguri (ST) 70. Majbat 71. Dhekiajuli 72. Barchalla 73. Tezpur 74. Rangapara 75. Sootea 76. Biswanath 77. Bihali 78. Gohpur 79. Jagiroad (SC) 80. Marigaon 81. Laharighat 82. Raha (SC) 83. Dhing 84. Batadroba 85. Rupohihat 86. Nagaon 87. Barhampur 88. Samaguri 89. Kaliabor 90. Jamunamukh 91. Hojai 92. Lumding 93. Bokakhat 94. Sarupathar 95. Golaghat 96. Khumtai 97. Dergaon (SC) 98. Jorhat 99. Majuli (ST) 100. Titabar 101. Mariani 102. Teok 103. Amguri 104. Nazira 105. Mahmara 106. Sonari 107. Thowra 108. Sivasagar 109. Bihpuria 110. Naoboicha 111. Lakhimpur 112. Dhakuakhana 113. Dhemaji (ST) 114. Jonai (ST) 115. Moran 116. Dibrugarh 117. Lahowal 118. Duliajan 119. Tingkhong 120. Naharkatia 121. Chabua 122. Tinsukia 123. Digboi 124. Margherita 125. Doomdooma 126. Sadiya

The House has its ,own secretariat And recruitment and conditions of service of the staff are regulated by the House independently. As in any other State in the country, the Legislature can legislate on all subjects in the State List as also the subjects in the Concurrent List. Assam, like any other State in the Country, is represented in the Country’s Parliament by 14 members in the House of the People (Lok Sabha) and seven members in the Council of State (Rajya Sabha). With the coming into force of the NE Areas (Reorgani-sation) Act, 1971, the State of Meghalaya and the union territory Mizoram were curved out of Assam. As a result, the size of the Assam Legislature were reduced to 114 seats as against 126 seats in the 1967 General Elections. The Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies order 1976 provided 126 seats for the State Legislature of which 8 seats were reserved for SC and 16 for ST. For the House of people (Lok Sabha) 14 seats were provided   one seat being reserved for SC and two for ST. The first four (1952, 1957, 1962, 1967) general elections were held in due time and simultaneously for both the House of people and the State Legislative Assembly. General elections to the House of People were delinked form the election to the Legislative Assembly in view of dissolution of the Parliament in December, 1970 and the consequent elections to the parliament were held in 1971. Thereafter, General Elections to the House of People were held in 1977 and in 1980 which was a midterm poll. In 1980, only 2 seats out of 14 were filled up as either no nomination was filed or all the validly nominated candidates withdrew their candidature. In 1983 by-elections of the House of People were held for filling up of the remaining 12 seats, but the elections could be completed only in 5 constituencies and 7 seats remained vacant. However, the General Elections to the House of People and the State Legislative Assembly were held leader of the majority group in the Assembly as Chief Minister and also appoints other members of the Council of Minister on the latter’s advice. The Council of Ministers assists and advises the Governor in the exercise of his function.

• State Secretariat The State Secretariat (Assam Sachibalya) which includes departments and also the Janata Bhawan, the seat of the Ministers, is the nerve centre of the State administration. The secretariat departrrients are headed by the secretaries and some of the vital and important departments like Finance, Planning & Development etc. are headed by Secretaries with designation and status of Commissioners. All of them function under the supervision and control of the Chief Secretary to the Government of Assam. For administrative conveniences, the State has been divided into districts and sub-divisions. A district is adminis-tered by the Deputy Commissioner, who is also the District Magistrate, and a Sub-division by the Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil), who also functions as the Sub-Divisional Magistrate. There are separate functional departments, for Agriculture, Veterinary, Forests, Public Works, Police, Health, Soil Conser-vation, Co-operation and other branches of administrative 8nd development works with their own district and sub-divisional networks.

• Local Administration The local administration is based on the 33 districts and their sub-divisions. Each district is governed by a Deputy Commis-sioner, who is the head of the District’s Administration. Deputy Commissioner is also responsible to act as the District Magis-trate, Revenue Collector, District Election Officer etc. In addi-tion to civil and criminal courts, every districts has its own po-lice force which is headed by the Superinten.dent of Police. A sub-division of district is headed by a Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil) who also act as Sub-Divisional Magistrate. In each sub-

Parliamentary Constituencies of Assam with their Assembly Segments

1. KARIMGANJ  (SC)  1. Ratabari (SC)  2. Patharakandi

5. KOKRAJHAR (ST) 28. Gossaigaon 29. Kokrajhar

57. Rangiya 59. Nalbari 64. Panery

3. Karimganj (N) (W). (ST) 65. Kalaigaon 4. Karimganj (S) 30. Kokrajhar (E) (ST) 66. Sipajhar 5. Badarpur 31. Sidli (ST) 67.Mangaldoi (SC) 98. Jorhat • 6. Hailakandi 33. Bijni 68. Dalgaon 100. Titabor 7. Katlicherra 40. Sorbhog ‘ 69. Udalguri (ST) 101. Mariani 8. Algapur 41. Bhabanipur 70. Majbat 102. Teok 2. SILCHAR 58. Tamulpur 9. TEZPUR 103. Amguri 9. Silchar 62. Barama (ST) 71. Dhekiajuli 104. Nazira 10. Sonai 63. Chapaguri (ST) 72. Barchalla 105. Mahmara 11. Dholai (SC) 6. BARPETA 73. Tezpur 106. Sonari 12. Udarbond 32. Bongaigaon 74. Rangapara 107. Thowra 13. Lakhipur 34. Abhayapuri (N) 75. Sootea 108. Sivasagar 14. Barkhola 35. Abhayapuri (SC) 76. Biswanath 13. DIBRUGARH 15. Katigora 42. Patacharkuchi 77. Bihali 115. Moran 3. AUTONOUMOUS 43. Barpeta 78. Gohpur 116. Dibrugarh DISTRICT (ST) 44. Jania 109. Bihpuria 117. Lahowal 16. Hafiong (ST) 45. Baghabar 10. NAGAON 118. Duliajan 17. Bokajan (ST) 46. Sarukhetri 79. Jagiroad (SC) 119. Tingkhong 18. Howraghat (ST) 47. Chenga 80. Marigaon 120. Naharkatia 19. Diphu (ST) 61. Dharmapur 81. Laharighat 122. Tinsukia 20 Baithalangso (ST) 7. GUWAHAT1 82. Raha (SC) 123. Digboi 4. DHUBRI 36. Dudhnai (ST) 86. Nagaon 124. Margherita 21. Mankachar 48. Boko (SC) 87. Barhampur 14. LAKHIMPUR 22. Salmara (S) 49. Chaygaon 90. Jamunamukh 99. Majuli (ST) 23. Dhubri 50. Palasbari 91. Hojai 110. Naoboicha 24. Gauripur 51. Jalukbari 92. Lumding 111. Lakhimpur 25. Golakganj 52. Dispur 11. KALIABOR 112. Dhakuakhana (ST) 26. Bilasipara (W) 53. Guwahati (E) 83. Dhing 113. Dhemaji (ST) 27. Bilasipara (E) 54. Guwahati (W) 84. Batadroba 114. Jonai (ST) 37. Goalpara (E) 55. Hajo 85. Rupohihat 121. Chabua 38. Goalpara (W) 60. Barkhetri 88. Samaguri 125. Doomdooma 39 Jaleswar 8. MANGALDOI 89. Kaliabor 126. Sadiya 56. Kamalpur 93. Bokakhat 94. Sarupathar 95. Golaghat 96. Khumtai 97. Dergaon (SC) 12. JORHAT division there are several Circles. A Circle is composed of some Mouzas and is headed by an appointed Circle Officer. A Mouza is headed by an appointed Mouzadar and is composed of villages and towns.

Administrative Units of Assam

Districts 33

Sub-Divisions 76

 Revenue Circles 184

Towns 214

 Development Blocks 219

 Gaon Panchayats 2,202

Villages 26,395

* As on 01.10.2017

• Local Self Government Like other states in India, Assam has also self government in urban and rural areas. According to Panchayat Raj Act, 1994 the Government of Assam has set up local self government as stated below :

• Urban Local Self Government 1) Municipal Corporation 2) Municipal Board 3) Town Committee • Rural Local Self Government 1) Zilla Parishad 2) Anchalik Panchayat 3), Gaon Panchayat

• Urban Local Self Government The most important institution of Local Self-government in the urban areas is the Municipality which has played a significant part in fostering among the people a sense of participation in the administration. At present there are 74 urban Local Bodies in the State excluding the Guwahati Municipal Corporation to carry out the civil functions in their respective areas. A Directorate  of Municipal Administration has been functioning since 19(), ) 1(advise and guide the urban local bodies. The Municipalities and Town Committees plan and implement development programmes relating to water supply, municipal markets, sanitation etc. • MunicipalCorporation: The Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) is the only Municipal Corporation in the entire North-East India The Guwahati Municipal Corporation Act was passed by the Assam Legislative Assembly in 1969. Accordingly, the GMC was constituted in the year 1974. According to the Act the Corporation shall consist of not more than 60 members. The members of the corporation is called ‘Councillor’. The term of office of the councillors is 5 years. The Government may extend the term by one year or dissolve the Corporation before expiration the term. For the purpose of election, the city area is divided as `wards’. The councillors are elected directly on the basis of universal adult suffrage. After the formation of the Corporation, the Councillors of its first meeting convened by the Commissioner and elect one of its member as Mayor and another Deputy Mayor for one year and members of different Standing Committees. Mayor is the political executive of the Corporation. He/She presides over the meeting. In his/her absence, Deputy Mayor discharges his/her functions. The state Government appoints a senior officer as Commissioner of the Corporation. He/She is the real executive head of the Corporation. The functions of the GMC are : protect public health, water; regulations of factories and trades; prevention of dangerous diseases; regulation of buildings, land, streets; maintanace of roads etc.

• Municipal Board The Municipal Boards are constituted on the urban areas of Assam under the Assam Municipal Act., 1956. The Act empowers the Government with 10,000 or more population to constitute Municipal Board. At present, there are 25 Municipal Boards in Assam. Each Municipal Board consists ( )1 not less than 10 and not more than 30 members who are called Commissioners. For the election, the Municipal area is divided into several wards on the basis of population. The voters elect the Commissioner on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The government can nominate two Commissioners from Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and socially and educationally backward communities. 30% seats are reserved for women. The Commissioners are elected for a term of 5 years. The government can dissolve the Municipal Board on ground of abuse of power. At the first meeting of the Board convened by Deputy Commissioner, the members elect one Chairman and another Vice-chairman from among them. Their term of office is 5 years. The Chairman is the head of the Municipal Board. He presides over the meeting. In his absence, Vice-chairman performs his/her functions. The functions of the Municipal Board are : Health and Sanitation; Public works; Water supply; Education; Maintenance of maternity and child welfare centres; Maintenance of registration of birth and death; Establishment of burial grounds; Maintenance of markets, shops etc. • Town Committee : The Assam Municipal Act. 1956 makes provision for the creation of Town Committee for the administration of semi-urban areas. At present there are 38 Town Committees in Assam. Under the Municipal Act. 1956, a Town Committee is constituted in an area having a population of less than 10,000, Under the Act., a Town Committee consists of not less than 7 and not more than 20 members. The Town area is divided into wards as members to be elected. Members are directly elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The government can nominate two members from scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes. 30% seats reserved for women. The members in their first meeting elect. one Chairman and another Vice-chairman from among themselves. The term of Town Committee is five years. But the state government may extend id it by one year or it may be dissolved on ground of mismanagement. The functions of the Municipal Board are : Health and Sanitation; Water Supply; Eduction; Maintenance of Maternity and Child Welfare Centres; Maintenance of Registrations of Birth and Death; Construction of Town Halls, Children Parks etc.

• Rural Local Self Government The Assam Panchayat Act, 1994 proposed a scheme of three tier Panchayats in the rural areas (plain districts) of Assam. The three tier structure is Goan Panchayat, Anchalik Panchayat and Zilla Parishad.

• Gaon Panchayat : According to the Assam Panchayat Act, 1994 the state government by public notification may declare any local area comprising a revenue village or a group of revenue villages or a forest village or a tea garden area or other such administrative units to be a Gaon Panchayat with a population not less than 6000 and not more than 10,000. The Act. lays down that the Gaon Panchayat shall consist of 10 members and 30% of them shall be women. 50% of this shall be reserved for women belonging to scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. The female members are elected on rotary basis. All members are elected directly by voters on the basis of universal adult franchise. The President of the Gaon Panchayat is elected directly by the people. The Vice-President is elected in a meeting from among the members. The President presides over the meeting and Vice-President acts as President in his/her absent. They may be removed by no-confidence motion passed by two-third members. The term of office of the Panchayat is 5 years. At present there are 2,202 Gaon Panchayat in Assam. The Gaon Panchayat performS the following functions Mobilise relief in natural calamities; Implementation of agricultural scheme; Improvement of animal husbandry, diary and poultry; Encourages cottage industries; Maintenance of roads, culverts, drains; Maintenance of schools, libraries, youth clubs, theatre halls etc; Public health and sanitation, rural electrification etc.

• Anchalik Panchayat : According to the Assam Panchayat Act., 1994 for each development block, there shall be a Anchalik Panchayat. Under the Act., Anchalik Panchayat shall consist of the following members : 1. One member elected by Goan Panchayat. 2. All the Presidents of the Goan Panchayats within the area. 3. The member of the Legislative Assembly and Lok Sabha falling wholly or partly under the jurisdiction of Anchalik Panchayat. 4. 50% seats reserved for women. 5. Reservation of seats for scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. The Deputy Commissioner shall convence the first meeting and in that meeting members elect the President and Vice-President from among them. The term of office of the President, Vice-President and Member are 5 years. The functions of Anchalik Panchayat are : Development of horticulture; Maintenance of animal husbandry; Promotion of fisheries; Improvement of cottage industries; Supply of drinking water; Public works such as maintenance of roads, drains etc.;. Health and family welfare etc. • Zilla Parishad : Under the Assam Panchayat Act, 1994 in each district there shall be Zilla Parishad. It is the highest panchayat institution. A Zilla Parishad is constituted with the following members : 1. All the members directly elected from the territorial constituencies of the district at the rate of one member for a population not less than 40,000. 2. The Presidents of Anchalik Panchayat. 3. All members of Lok Sabha and member of Legislative Assembly within the area of Zilla Parishad. Seats reserved for SC and ST and 50% of total seats reserved for women and out of this 50% seats reserved for SC and ST women. The government can nominate if no women elected. The Deputy Commissioner shall call the first meeting where elected members elect President and Vice-President. The term of office of Zilla Parishad is five years. It may be dissolved by government. at any time on account of mismanagement or corruption. 1 he functions of Zilla Parishad are : Development of agriculture, irrigation and horticulture; Rural electrifications; Soil conservation; Social forestry and animal husbandry; Development of fisheries; Development of small scale industries; Construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, drains; Health and hygiene; Education and social welfare etc. A State Directorate of Panchayat looks after the affairs relating to the Panchayat System. • Six Schedule of the Constitution The system of local self government in the Hill districts of Assam excluded from the purview of the Assam Panchayat Act. 1994. The system of local self government in the Hill areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram including the BTAD are governed by the 6th schedule of the Indian Constitution. Tribal areas are administered as autonomous districts. The 44th constitutional amendment in 2003 this autonomous administration is extended to -plain areas. Even such administration is extended to hill areas of Darjelling. At first the areas included in the schedule were divided into `A’ and B’. But by amendment it was divided into four Part I : The areas of Assam. Part II : The areas of Meghalaya. Part II (A) : The areas of Tripura , Part III : The areas of Mizoram. The only area of plain tribes is Bodo Land Territorial Autonomous Council (BTAD). Tribal areas are administered as autonomous districts. These autonomous districts are not outside the executive authority of the state concerned. But provision is made for the creation of District Council and Regional Councils for the exercise of certain legislative and judicial functions. • The Governor has the power to define the area of an autonomous hill district by a public notification. If there are different scheduled tribes in an autonomous district, the Governor may by notification decide the areas into autonomous regions. The administrative organisation of an autonomous district is called District Council and that of autonomous region is known as Regional Council. At present there are two District Councils one in Karbi Anglong district and the other in North Cachar Hill District (Dima Hasao). There is no Regional Council is any of the Hill districts of Assam. The District council consists of not more than 30 members. Three fourth members are elected and other members are nominated by the Governor. The term of District Council is 5 years. It has chairman elected by members. District Council has an Executive Council consisting of the Chief Executive Members, other Executive Members and a paid secretary. The District Council enjoys legislative and administrative functions. The legislative powers of District Council extend to allotment, occupation and use of land for agriculture, grazing and for residential purposes, management of non-reserved forest,. regulation of practice of Jhum, public health, marriage, social customs, inheritance of property and other functions. All administrative functions are exercised by District Councils. It enjoys the power to create village council for justice. District council assesses the land revenue, levies and collect taxes on buildings, employment, animals, vehicles etc. It establishes and manages, primary schools, markets, roads, water ways and transport. By 42nd amendment in 1995, 15 additional subjects were transferred to Karbi-Anglong and North Cacher Autonomous Districts (now Dima Hasao). By 44th amendment in 2003, 40 additional subjects like agriculture, co-operative, fishery, forest have been transferred to BTAD. All laws made by District Council are assented by the Governor to become laws. The total members of BTAD is 40. Out of these 30 seats are reserved for Bodos, 5 seats unreserved, 5 for non-Bodos. For the administration of BTAD there is an Executive Council. It is like that of State cabinet.

• Bodoland Territorial Council The Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) is a territorial privilege established according to the Memorandum of Settlement of February 10, 2003. BTC came into existence immediately after surrender of BLTF cadres. The BLTF laid down their weapons on December 6, 2003 under the leadership of Hagrama Mohilary and Hagrama was sworn in as the Chief Executive Member (CEM) on December 7, 2003. The BTC has 12 electorate members each looking after a specific area of control. The area under the BTC jurisdiction is called the Bodoland Territorial Area District (BTAD).

Bodoland Territorial Council

District(s) 4 Established 10 February 2003 Headquarter Kokrajhar Largest Town Kokrajhar Chief Executive Member Hagrama Mohilary Legislature (seats) Unicameral (40) Population (2011) 35,15,355 Official languages Bodo, Assamese Area 8821.68 sq km Website

Bodoland is the gateway to the North- Eastern Region of India, which was created by curving out some area of eight districts of Assam namely Kokrajhar, Dhubri, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup, Darang and Sonitpur within the state of Assam. It is an Autonomous Administrative unit constituted under the 6th Schedule of the Constitution of India covering an area of 8821.68 sq km. The administrative unit has been created with a mission to accomplish development in the area of economic, education, preservation of land right, linguistic aspiration, Socio-culture and ethnic identity of Bodos and above all to speed up the infrastructure development of communities in the BTC area.

The actual functioning of council was started on 7th December 2003 by constituting the 12 members of the. Council provisionally. After the Council Election on 13th May 2005 and subsequent by-election in November 2005 all the 40 Members of Legislative Council has been formed to look after the development works in the Bodoland Territorial Area Districts. The remaining 6 (Six) Members are nominated by the Governor of Assam from the unrepresented communities. Thus altogether 46 MCLAs represent in the Council from all communities of BTC Area. As per Memorandum of Settlement in the tripartite talks in the year 2003, fourty subjects has been entrusted to the BTC Authority for all round development of the people in this area. The entire area covered under the BTC has been recognised with Kokrajhar as original district and forming other new district thus totaling 4(four) districts in BTC area. The area under those four district has been estimated as follows : District Area (sq km) Kokrajhar 3165.44 Chirang 1974.80 Baksa 2007.50 Udalguri 1673.94 The BTC lies in the North Western part of Assam. Kokrajhar town is the administrative headquarter of BTC. Its strategic location is blessed with beautiful forests with of flora and founa. The population of BTC area as per 2001 Census report is 29.2 lakhs out which the ST population is around 52% of which only 3% of the total population of live in urban area.The average density of the population in BTC is 326 compared to 340 of Assam. Amongst the Tribal population Bodos, Rabhas and less quantity of Garos are inhabiting in this area out which Bodos will be 90%. The other communities like Ransbanhi, Sarania are which are also originated from Bodo group are inhabiting in large part of BTC. Besides Tea and Other Ex-Tea tribes including Santhal, Orao etc. are also available. Moreover, other general communities like Assamese, Bengali, Nepali and few numbers of Hindi speaking people are also found in the Council area.

The Bodoland Territotial Council orBTC. has been divided into four districts for administrative purpose. It has been further subdivided into 10 Civil Subdivisions and 40 Development Blocks, some of which are partly in BTC area and partly outside. • Assam Public Service Commission The Assam Public Service Commission (APSC), consist-ing of a Chairman and ten members, recommend candidates for appointment to the various services, conduct competitive examinations and advise the Government on matters relating to methods of recruitment to civil services, principles to regulate appointments, promotions and inter-service transfers, as also disciplinary matters. The Commission holds departmental and language examination for Government servants and also arranges for holding of Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations in the State’s centres. • Law and Order The planned programmes for changing the mediaeval socio-economic structure into a modern industrialised society create some problems in respect of maintaining the social balance. New aspirations crystallised in the thought process of all strata of society and their interaction has been creating problems. Political upheavals have followed one after another and pent up demand for socio-economic equity and justice are being voiced by both legal and violent means. The growth of population has brought in its trail various social ills. Natural calamities also cause further deterioration in the overall social picture by eating into the vitality of the State’s economy. All these have imposed strains on the social fabric leading to increase in incidence of various crimes. Organised Police in the State came into existence in 1861 along with the rest of the country for preventing and detecting crimes and maintaining law and order. The State police organisation is now headed by the Inspector General of Police (IGP) and has a state wide network with senior officers in-charge of districts and sub-divisions and different functional branches.

The Special Branch is also headed by an officier of the status of the IGP. He has under him two DIGs and several Superintendents of Police (SP). The Criminal Investigation Department (CID), which is rightly considered the back bone of the investigating agency of the Police, has been continuously modernised with provisions of modern equipments. The State Finger Print Bureau now has the single digit fingerprint system. The dog squad consists of several trained dogs and steps are afoot to have a two-animal dog squad in every district. Data processing machines have been gradually expended, a rogue’s gallery put up, mobile, scientific investigation squad set up and special squad for investigation of different types of crimes have been established. The well equipped Forensic Science Laboratory is organised into 10 different sections (physics, chemistry, biology, serology, ballistics, toxicology, questioned documents, photography, instrumentation and explosive) and is in a position to handle most of the cases and to give expert opinion. The Assam Police Radio Organisation has growth since its inception in 1946. Headed by a Director and having stations, the organisation has been using modern sophisticated devices and instruments and facilities are being expanded to further improve the network. Each district headquarter has a traffic branch under a senior officer. The Guwahati city has a Deputy Superintendent of Police incharge of the traffic branch. The district officers also undertake vigorous publicity drives and demonstrations to create great traffic consciousness amongst the people. The Mounted Police Squad, introduced in Guwahati for more effective handling of law and order situation, has a fleet of trained horses and the personnels of the squad have also been adequately trained. The process of having women police was started in 1970 and efforts are under way to organise it in a more systematic manner. The present force has meantime given a good account of itself at times of demonstrations, agitations etc.

Recruits of the Armed Police Battalions are trained in the Armed Police Training Centre at Dergaon. The centre also runs refresher and cadre courses for the battalion personnel. The Assam Police Training College at Dergaon besides training recruits also. organises reorientation courses for officers. There are also a Recruits Training School at Dergaon to train the recruits of the District Executive Forces. A Battalion Training Centre has also been established. Training in Driving is imparted in a training school under the control of Director General of Police (communication). Besides the District Executive Force in each district, Assam Police has now 14 Battalions and 4 Task Force Battalions as the striking force. The Government Railway Police District of Assam Police has a statewide Jurisdiction covering 2435.13 kms of both Broad Gauge and Metre Gauge line. The River Police District with 9 stations and outputs has also been functioning under a deputy inspector General of Police. The State Fire Service organisation with 7 Fire Station and 43 Sub-Fire Stations directly in charge of a Director in the rank of a OIG is under the administrative control of the Assam Police Department. The best testimony of good public relations developed by Assam Police is to be found in the Village Defence Organisation, a unique example of public participation in police work. The village defence parties, apart from the normal patrolling and developmental activities also work together with the police force during national crises. The active participation of policemen in the field of sports and cultural activities and in relief works during natural calamities etc. also helping development of better understanding between the police and the public. The Headquarters also have a public relations wing to meaningfully guide the public relation activities. The Assam Police have contributed immensely in the field of sports and the police teams in different games have gathered enviable laurels for the State. • Home Guards and Civil Defence I be Home Guards and Civil Defence Organisation of the State 11;1s been rendering valuable service to the society in various

fields. The home guards usually assist the police in maintainiiii law and order, guarding vital installations, railway tracks, will life sanctuaries, patrol on flood control dykes and helping t11( administration in rescue and relief operations. Likewise the civil defence volunteers are trained and kept ready for first aid, fire fighting and rescue operations. More than 10,000 home guards are deployed with various organisations like Police, Forest, ONGC, OIL etc.. Personnel of the Border Wing Battalion are deployed with Border Security Force in Dhubri and Cachar sectors. They help the Border Security Force in guarding the international boundary and prevention of trans-border crimes. There are two Assam Special Reserve Force Battalions under this organisation and the personnel of these battalions are deployed in various districts •to assists the police administration in maintaining law and order, do duties like internal security, VIP security and PSO duty. As per direction of the Government of India, at present civil defence measures are taken only in 8 vulnerable towns of Assam. These are Tezpur, Guwahati, Jorhat, Sivasagar, Namrup, Duliajan, Digboi and Tinsukia. The main activities of Civil Defence are to take appropriate measures for safeguarding the population against the hostile attack whether by air or by ground, to train the general public, for taking effective measures to minimise damage to properties and loss of life, to maintain continuity of production where the country faces any external aggression, to face war eventualities, to make fool proof preparations in all respect during peace time. Installation and maintenance of special civil defence communication networks and continuous process of training of Civil Defence Volunteers are the main peace-time activities of Civil Defence. The government from time to time also assign other duties like extending help and assistance in respect of rescue and relief measures to the community during natural calamities like flood, earthquake, epidemic etc. As the civil Defence Organisation has a small full-time paid staff for training of volunteers and maintaining civil defence instalhtions during peace time, there is very limited scope to extend full time services to the community during natural calamities. Witli the limited resources available, the Civil Defence Organisation has been organising rescue and relief operations during natural calamities and has earned high appreciation from the Press and the public. The Government of India has proposed to establish a mobile Civil Emergency Force to deal with the natural calamities in order to diversity the activities of the organisation.

Courtsy . Directorate of Information and Public Relations, Assam

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