MANIPUR

Manipur is located in north-east India. It is situated between 93.2° E to 94.47° E longitude and between 23.50° N to 25.41° N Latitude.

Boundaries: – Manipur is bounded by Upper Burma (Myanmar) on the east, the China Hills of Burma (Myanmar) on the south-east, Nagaland on the north, Assam on the west and Mizoram on the south and south-west. Geographically the State is MANIPUR  divided into two tracts — the hills  . comprising of five districts and plains with three districts.

 • Geography Manipur is one of the seven states of Northeast India. The capital lies in an oval-shaped valley of approximately 2,000 sq km (700 sq miles) surrounded by blue mountains and is at an elevation of 790 m above the sea level. The slope of the valley is from north to south. The presence of the mountain ranges not only prevents the cold winds from the north from reaching the valley but also acts as a barrier to the cyclonic storms originating from the Bay of Bengal.

There are four major river basins in Manipur State, the Barak River Basin (Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north. The Barak river, the largest river of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by a number of tributaries such as the lrang, Maku, and Tuivai. After its junction with the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north and forms the border with Assam State, and then enters the Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur. The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers : the Manipur, lmphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding hills. . Almost all the rivers in the valley area are in the mature stage and, therefore, deposit their sediment load in the Loktak lake. The rivers draining the Manipur Hills are comparatively young, due to the hilly terrain through which they flow. These rivers are corrosive in nature and assume turbulent form in the rainy season. Important rivers draining the western area include the Maku, Barak, Jiri, Irang and Leimatak. Rivers draining the eastern part of the state, the Yu River Basin, include the Chamu, Khunou and other short streams. Physiographically, Manipur may be characterised in two distinct physical regions — an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, and the inner area of flat plain, with all associated land forms. These two areas are not only distinct in respect of physical features but are also conspicuous with regard to various flora and fauna. The valley region would have been a monotonous, featureless plain but for a number of hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 sq km. The altitude ranges from 40 m at Jiribam to 2,994 m at Mt. Iso Peak near Mao Songsong. The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The valley soils generally contain loam, small rock fragments, sand and sandy clay, and are quite varied. On the plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is quite thick. The top soil on the steep slopes is very thin.. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes.

 • Rainfall The number of rainydays is about 18 in each of June, July and August and about 14 in September. About 80% of the total average annual rainfall in Manipur comes during these months. The amount of rainfall received in the season is about 170 cm in Manipur. The occurrence of short rainless, sunny and hot periods in between the spells of rainfall is also a common feature of this season.

Some Basic Data : Manipur

Date of Formation- 21 January 1972 State

Area- 22,327 sq km

Capital- IMPHAL

 Population (2011) 25,70,390

Male-12,90,171  

Female-12,80,219

 Sex Ratio -(2011) 992 females per 1000 males

 Density

Literacy (2011) 79.21%

Male-  86.06%

 Female- 71.73%

 Districts- 9

 Villages- 2,199

Towns-33

 Principal Cities/Towns – Imphal, Bishnupur, Chandel, Churachandpur, Senapati, Tamen-glong, Thoubal, Ukhrul

Languages – Manipuri, English and a number of tribal dialects spoken in the hills

Per Capita Income – Rs. 20,326 (at current prices, 2005-06)

State Symbols

 State Bird – Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant

State Flower- Siroi Lily

State Animal – Sangai

State Tree -• Indian Mahogany

Members of Legislative Assembly-60

 Members of Lok Sabha -2

Members of Rajya Sabha -1

• Rivers Khuga, Imphal, Nambul, Iril, Thoubal etc. • History Not much of recorded history of Manipur is available. But it has been in existence since time immemorial. According to the historians, Pakhangba ascended the throne of one of the seven Main Principalities in 33 AD and founded a long dynasty which ruled Manipur till 1891. It came under British domination as a princely State in 1891. The Manipur constitution Act 1947, established a democratic form of government with the Maharaja as the Executive Head and a legislature constituted by election on adult franchise. The Legislative Assembly so constituted functioned until it was dissolved on the integration of the State with the Dominion of India in October, 1949. Then it was governed as if it were a Chief Commission’s province and thereafter as a Part C State under the Indian Constitution with effect from 26.01.1950. In 1950-51, an advisory form of popular government was introduced and in 1957 this was replaced by a Territorial Council of 30 erected and 2 nominated members. In 1963, a Legislative Assembly of 30 elected and 3 nominated members was established. The status of the administrator was raised from that of a Chief Commissioner to that of Lieutenant Governor in December, 1969. Manipur achieved full statehood on January 21,1972.

• Economy -: The main crop of the State is paddy. Maize is cultivated in the foothills. Out of the area of 22,327 sq km, the area available for cultivation is about 2.1 lakh hectares only. The area under paddy is 1.86 lakh hectares out of which 1.01 lakh hectares is in the valley. About 70% of the valley has been brought under high-yielding rice. The State has made significant advance in the field of agriculture. More that 70% of the high-yielding varieties of paddy which are locally bred are punshi, phouoibi and KD series. .Handloom is the largest industry in Manipur, with the finished items often being exported. There are 3 lakh spindles and at least 3 lakh persons are employed in the field. The Manipur Spinning Mill, launched in 1974, has grown to use 16,416 spindles. The Khandsari Sugar Factory at Khngabok is working on full steam. A TV assemble unit and a cycle assemble unit are working in full swing. A Mechanised Dye House was commissioned in 1987. There are 7686 small-scale industrial units in the State with almost 23,800 workers. Sericulture is an important industry in Manipur. It is the first to introduce oak tasar industry. In the hill areas there are 75 tasar farms. 1500 tribal families (or 1500 members) produce

Districts of Manipur

District Headquarters  Population(2011) Area(sq km) ,Density Bishnupur-  Bishnupur ,240,363496, 415 Churachandpur-  Churachandpur-   271.274, 4574, 50 Chandel- Chandel ,144,028 3317, 37. Imphal East Porompat,  452,661, 710555. Senapati- Senapati 354,772 ,3269, 116. Tamenglong- Tamenglong -140,143, 43925 Thoubal -Thoubal 420,517 514,  713. Ukhrul Ukhrul ,183,115, 4547, 31. Imphal West Lamphelpat, 514,683  519,847.

about 30 million tasar cocoons valued at Rs. 300 million. Apart from this, over 100 scheduled caste families in the valley practise Mulberry rearing in traditional ways producing 45,000 kg of raw silk annually by reeling and spinning and utilise the same in the exquisites handloom industry. • Agriculture & Forests Agriculture and allied activities is the single largest source of livelihood of majority of rural mass and is also the mainstay of the State economy. From a modest beginning in 1946, the State has now got sufficient number of trained manpower of its own to implement various scheme and programmes in agriculture. Production of rice has gone upto 2,864 kg per hectare for highly yielding variety. Total area under forest cover is 17,685 sq km of which 1,463 sq km fall under reserved forest, while 4,171 sq km is protected forest reserve and 12,051 sq km as unclassified forest. Manipur in noted for Shiroy Lily, the paradise flower which in not found elsewhere in the world. It is also the home of the brown-antlered deer, called Sangai, one of the rarest species in the world.

• Irrigation & Power Within a short period introduction of major and medium irrigation schemes in the State, remarkable progress has been made bringing 54,100 hectares under the major and medium irrigation programmes. Power development began in Manipur with installation of first hydro-power house at Leimakhong in 1930 having two sets of 100 KW and 56 KW capacities.

 • Industry- Manipur is industrially backward, primarily due to its locational disadvantages. However, it is now making rapid strides towards industrialisation and has registered about 8,000 small-scale industrial units, Manipur Drug & Pharmaceuticals Limited, a joint sector project of Government of India through Hindustan Antibiotics Limited (HAL), Pune, was commissioned at Nilakuthi in Imphal district. Medium-scale industrial units include a steel re-rolling mill, Manipur Electronics Development Corporation Limited. Plywood factory, Bamboo chipping unit at Jiribam, Spinning Mill, Cycle Corporation, Cement Plant, Shree Manipur Roller A:our Mill and Manipur Vanaspati & Allied industries Limited, in the joint sector. A master plan for industrial development of Manipur has been prepared through National Industrial Development Corporation (NIDC) and profile of 99 feasible industries in the State has also been compiled. Manipur Electronic Development Corporation Ltd. manufactures large number of both colour and black & white TV sets. The Centre for Electronic Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology have been established by the Government of India at Imphal to import training in the field of electronics and plastic industries. Manipur is the first to introduce Oak Tasar Industry. In the hill area there are 75 Tasar farms, 1500 Tribal families (or 1500 members) produce about 30 million Tasar cocoons valued Rs. 3.00 million. Apart from this over 100 scheduled Caste families in the valley practise Mulberry rearing in traditional ways producing 45,000 kg of raw silk annually by reeling and spinning and utilise the same in its exquisite handloom industry.

• People There are three distinct groups of people in the tiny state of Manipur. THE MEITEI : Drawn from various tribes such as the Nagas and the Kukis, the Meitei were the ones responsible for giving Manipur its identity. They dominate the valley and speak Meitei. The Meitei are composed of the Loi (an artisan group), the Pangal (Manipuri Muslims) and the Yathibi and the Thanga (fisherfolk). THE NAGAS : Immigrants from long ago, the Naga inhabit one of the sections of Manipur’s hill areas. The Naga comprises the Abui, Kacha, Tangkul, Mao, Maram, Maring and Tama THE KUKI CHIN : Relatively recent immigrants from the precolonial era, the Kuki-Chin also inhabit the hills. They comprise the Gangte, Hmar, Paite, Thadou, Vaiphei, Monsang and many more.

• Arts & Crafts- The Manipuri women are hard-working and expert weavers. They weave beautiful cotton and silk. The legendary work Sarni-Lanmi of Thoibi is a special attraction. Manipur is the only state in India where Oak Tasar silk is available. The Tasar worms are grown on the Manipuri Oak Uyam which grows wild in the jungles of Manipur and Nagaland. Bamboo products include tabu, traditionally used for keeping va[uables and cloths. Liphan is usually used as a centre-spread and Phiruk, a masterpiece from the Maring community, is used for carrying delicacies on special occasions such as weddings. Manipur pottery is crafted without a potter’s wheel. It is a rare experience to witness the potters of Andro, Thongjao and Nungbi deftly moulding an unbelievable range of earthenware: Beautiful pieces of art made out of cane also an important part of handicrafts. Manipuri dolls and a host of other beautiful carvings from rare and exotic varieties of timber.

• Festivals Some traditional festivals which have been in existence since old times are Lai Haraoba festival, Shajibu Cheiraoba (Meitei new year celebration), Heigru Hitongba, Goddess Emoinu Eratpa day (worship of Goddess Emoinu), Ningol Chakkouba, Baruni Kaba day, worship of Goddess Panthoibi, Doul-Jatra, Rasa Leela, Rath-Jatra, Kut, Lui-Ngai-Ni, Gang-Ngai, Idul-Fitre, Christmas etc.

Manipuri Dance

Lai Haraoba and Mera Montongba are the major festivals. Gang-Ngai, Kut and Luira are some of the lesser known festivals. The Mariipuri Dance in one of the classical dances of India. The Rasa dance is also very popular. The well known Manipuri Rasa-Leelas represent only a fragment of this sankirtana tradition. Actually it is a dance-drama, based on the pattern of the classical Natya tradition.

 • Transportation Tulihal Airport, the airport of Imphal, connects the state capital with Delhi, Kolkata Guwahati and Agartala. National Highway NH-39 links Manipur with the rest of the country through the railway stations at Dimapur in Nagaland at a distance of 215 km (134 mi) from Imphal. National Highway NH-53 connects Manipur with another railway station at Silchar in Assam, which is 269 km (167 mi) away from Imphal. The road network of Manipur, with a length of 7,170 km (4,460 mi) connects all the important towns and distant villages and the Imphal-Moreh road, that connected to Myanmar.

On April 9, 2010, Union Minister of India, Shashi Tharoor an-nounced that the central government is considering a rail link from Manipur to Vietnam.

• Tourist Centres There are several places of tourist interest in the State. Khonghampat Orchidarium, located at 7 km from lmphal on the National Highway 39 has over 110 species of orchids. Mao, at 1,757 m height and 106 km away from the State capital is a hill station with enchanting scenic beauty. It is mid-way between Imphal and Dimapur. Moreh is located 110 km from Imphal and close to the Myanmar border. It is a commercial town. Bishnupur is only 27 km from Imphal and has an ancient Vishnu Temple. Further, Moirang is the place where Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose hoisted the Indian tricolour flag for the first time on Indian soil. It is about 45 km south of Imphal and has an Indian National Army memorial hall and war museum. It is also famous for early Manipuri folk culture. Nearby, Loktak Lake has a superb view and has a deer park in its vicinity. Tourists also visit Temengiong which is 165 km away for a variety of attraction including water falls and exotic-orchids. Kaina (29 km) is a Hindu pilgrimage centre. The -Keibui Lan-ijao National Park is the only floating sanctuary of its kind in the country. Other places of interest include the old palace, Shri Govindji Temple and Vaishnavite Centre, war cemeteries, State museum near polo ground. Langthaband palace, and Khwairamband bazar (Nupi Keithel or lma Market) — women’s market in lmphal.

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