MIZORAM

 Location Mizoram- (Mi = People, Zo = Hill, Ram = Country, Land of the Hill People / Mizo people) is one of the Seven Sister States in North-Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the northeast of India. They are found in northwestern Myanmar, northeastern India and Bangladesh. Anthropologists classify them as Tibeto-Burma speaking member of the Mongoloid race. The state is blessed with natural beauty and is rich in flora, fauna surrounded by beautiful mountains, river’s and landscape.

Some Basic Data :- Mizoram-

Date of Formation: 20 February 1987 State, Area: 21,081 sq km Capita –AIZAWL, Population (2011) : 10,97,206 , Male: 5,55,339, Female: 5,41,867, Density: 52 persons per sq km (2011), Sex Ratio (2011) : 976 female per 1000 male, Literacy (2011) Male: 91.33%  Female: : 86.72% .No. of Districts :9, Villages: 707 , Towns: 22, Principal Cities/Towns- Aizawl, Chhimtuipui, Lunglei, Languages- Mizo, English, Hindi. Per Capita Income- Rs. 22,417 (at current prices, 2005-06). State Symbols- State Bird : Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant State Flower : Red Vanda,State Animal : Hillock Gibbon, State Tree : Iron wood, Members of Legislative Assembly : 40, Members of Lok Sabha – 1 Members of Rajya Sabha ,1.

• Boundaries Mizoram occupies an area of great strategic importance in North-Eastern corner of India. It is bounded on the north by the district of Cachar (Assam) and the State Manipur, on the east and south by Chin Hills and Arakan (Myanmar), on the west by the Chittagong hill tracts of Bangladesh and State of Tripura. • Physiography Mizoram is a land of hills. The hills run in ranges from north to south. They have an average height of 900 m, the highest point being the Blue Mountain (Phawangpuri) in the south which rises to a height of 2,210 m. The hills are steep and cut apart by rivers which have created deep gorges. The terrain, on the whole, is mountainous except for low depressions amid hills, where wet cultivation is practised. Mizoram has great natural beauty and an endless variety of landscape and it is rich in flora and fauna.

 • Climate & Rainfall Mizoram enjoys a very pleasant climate, the temperatures averaging between 10° c to 21° c in winter and 20° c to 28° c in summer. The south-west monsoon from the Bay of Bengal visits the State around May and lingers till September. The annual rainfall is fairly heavy and evenly spread about 2,500 mm on the average. Winter brings frost in some place but no snowfall.

• Rivers-

Although many rivers and streamlets drain the hill ranges the most important and useful rivers are the ‘Tlawng’ (also known as the Dhaleswari or Katakhal). Tut or Gutur river, the Sonai (also known as Tuirial) and the Tuivawl, which drain the northern territory and eventually joint the river Barak in the plains of Cachar. The southern part of Mizoram is watered by the Kolodyne and its tributaries and the western part is drained by Karnaphuli (known as ‘Knawthlang’ Tupi) and its tributaries. A number of important towns including Chittagong in Bangladesh is situated at the mouth of the river.

• History Mizoram was one of the districts of Assam till ‘1972 when it became a Union Territory. After being annexed by the British in 1891, for the first few years, Lushai Hills in the north remained under Assam while the southern half remained under Bengal. Both these parts were amalgamated in 1898 into one district called Lushai Hill district under the Chief Commissioner of Assam. In 1954, by an Act of Parliament the name was changed to Mizo Hills District. With the implementation of the. North-Eastern Reorganisation Act in 1972, Mizoram became a Union Territory and as a sequel to the signing of the historic memorandum of settlement between Government of India and the Mizo National Front (MNF) in 1986, it was granted ‘statehood on February 20, 1987. • Economy Agriculture is practically the only occupation in Mizoram. The territory is famous for its fibreless ginger, although other cash.

Districts of Mizoram-

District – Aizawl, Area3,576  (sq km) Population (2011 census) 4,04,054, Headquarters- Aizawl. Champhai- 3,186 1,25,370 Champhai. Kolasib- 1,283,  83,054, Kolasib. Lawngtlai- 2,557, 1,17,444 Lavvngtlai. Lunglei- 4,538, 1,54,094 Lunglei. Mamit- 3,026 85,757, Mamit. Saiha- 1,400, 56,366, Saiha. Serchhip- 1,442, 64,875, Serchhip.

. • Industry- Entire Mizoram is a Notified Backward Area and is categorised under ‘No Industry District’. However, concerted efforts were made to accelerate the growth of industries in Mizoram. For the development of industries in the State, the Mizoram government framed the industrial policy of Mizoram in 1989. In the policy resolution priority industries have been identified. These are agro and forest-based industries followed by handloom and handicrafts, electronics, consumer industries. Sericultures is operating at Aizawl with two full-fledged wings, viz., handl000rn and handicrafts wings and geology and mining wings. The completed projects of Ginger oil and Oleoresin Plant and Ginger Dehydration Plant at Sairang and Fruit Preservation Factory at Vairengte and the projects under implementation namely Mizo Processing Unit (renamed Mizo Milling Plant) at Khawzawl and Fruit Juice Concentrate Plant at Chhingchhip were transferred to the incorporated Mizoram Food.

• People -The word ‘Mizo’ is a generic v! term, which, literally translated means Hillmen or ‘Highlanders’, consis-ting of several clans or sub-tribes, such as, Lusei, Hmar, Ralte, Paithe, Pawi, More and so on. A very interesting tradition of the Mizos. is the code of ethics which revolves around ‘Tlawmgaihna° an untranslatable term which roughly means that every Mizo is duty bound to be hospitable, kind, unselfish and helpful. The Mizos form a closeknit society with no class distinctions, no discrimination. The Mizos have the highest literacy rate (95%) in the country. Mizoram’s traditional rulers were the famous 5ailos who ruled as chiefs having rights over land and life. As rulers of an agricultural economy, each chief had within his court an agricultural expert who was well acquainted with the secrets of the forests. They came under the influence of British missionaries in the 19th century and now most of the Mizos are. Christians. Christianity has brought changes in their social life and outlook. Western lifestyles and modern education have had their impact, but the cultural traditions of the Mizos have got weathered at the onslaught of change. They retain their vigour, colour, richness and sheer loveliness.

• Festivals- Mizos are basically agriculturists. All their activities centre round jhum cultivation and their festivals are associated with such agricultural operations. Kut is the Mizo word for festivals. Mizos have three major festivals called Chapchar Kut, Mim Kut and Pawl Kut.

Arts & Crafts- Mizo women use hand loom to make clothing and cloth handicrafts.The local products are even fused with other materials to give them a fashionable and stylish designs. Mizos are fond of colourful hand woven wrap-around skirt called puan chei, and a matching beautiful top called Kawrchei. A multi colour Mizo traditional bag called Khiang kawi, which is creatively knitted out of bright coloured wools, is a welcome possession. A typical Mizo blanket known as Pawnpui is also used. Basket weaving is also common. Baskets known as Em, are used and Thlangra — a plate for cleaning rice etc. are made from bamboos. In fact, a typical Mizo house is crafted out of bamboos, dry grasses, mud and wood. A traditional Mizo village has been reconstructed at Reiek – a few kilometres away from Aizawl. Though modern houses made with bricks, concrete and tin sheets are now the norm.

• Tourist Centres Mizoram is considered by many as a beautiful place due to its dramatic landscape and pleasant climate. There have been many attempts to increase revenue through tourism but many potential tourists find the lack of amenities to be a hurdle. However the State continues to promote itself and many projects have been initiated. The tourism ministry continues to maintain or upgrade its tourist lodges throughout the state. Foreign tourists are required to obtain an ‘inner line permit’ under the special permit before visiting. The state is rich in bird diversity, which has the potentiality to make it a major birding destination. For Mrs Hume’s Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae, Mizoram is a stronghold. There is also a rare record of the Wild Water Buffalo from the state. There are several past records of the Sumatran rhinoceros from Mizoram, then Lushai Hills.The small population of wild elephants can be seen in Ngengpui and Dampa Sanctuaries.

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