Boundaries The State of Nagaland is narrow strip of mountainous territory between the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam and Myanmar (Burma). On the. east it shares India’s ? international boundary with Burma. On all other sides it is fid Kohim bounded by Indian territory Manipur on the south, Assam on the west and north and Arunachal Pradesh on the north-east.

• Physiography- Nagaland is covered largely with ranges varying from 4,000 to about 10,000 ft. above the seal level. Saramati, the highest peak, is 3841 m high and Kohima, the capital is 1,444.12 m above the sea level. Main rivers are Dhansiri, Doyang, Dikhou and Jhanji. 9 Geography & Climate Nagaland is largely a mountainous state. The Naga Hills rise from the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam to about 2,000 ft (610 m) and rise further to the southeast, as high as 6,000 ft (1,800 m). Mount Saramati at an elevation of 12,552 ft (3,826 m) is the state’s highest peak; this is where the Naga Hills merge with the Patkai Range in Burma. Rivers such as the Doyang and Diphu to the north, tne Barak river in the southwest and the Chindwin river of Burma in the southeast, dissect the entire state. 20 percent of the total land area of the state is covered with wooded forest, rich in flora and fauna. The evergreen tropical and the sub tropical forests are found in strategic pockets in the state. Nagaland has a largely monsoon climate with high humidity levels. Annual rainfall averages around 70 —100 inches (1,800 —2,500 mm), concentrated in the months of May to September. Temperatures range from 21 c to 40° c. In winter, tem-peratures do not generally drop below 4° c, but frost is common at high elevations. The state enjoys a salubrious climate. Summer is the shortest season in the state that lasts for only a few months. The temperature during the summer season remains between 16° c to 31° c. Winter makes an early arrival and bitter cold and dry weather strikes certain regions of the state. The maximum average ^temperature recorded in the winter season is 24° c. Strong north west winds blow across the state during the months of February and March. • History Like other inhabitants of the north-eastern region, the Nagas too have their share of legends and folklore regarding their origin and evolution through the ages. Nagas are basically tribal people and every tribe had its own effective system of self-governance from times immemorial. In the 12th and 13th centuries gradual contact with the Ahoms of present-day Assam was established, but this did not have any significant impact on the traditional Naga way of life. However, in the -19th century the British appeared on the scene and ultimately the area was brought under British administration. After independence, this territory was made a centrally adminis-trated are a in 1957, administrated by the Governor of Assam. It was known as the Naga Hills Tuensang Area. This failed to satisfy popular aspirations and unrest continued. Hence, in 1961, this area was renamed as Nagaland and given the status of State of the Indian Union which was formally inaugurated on 1 December, 1963.

• Economy The economy of the State is dependent almost on agriculture because only a little more than one third of the total area is cultivable. Considering the hilly terrain, this is not unusual but the main drawback is that cultivation is vitiated by what is called.

Some Basic Data :- Nagaland-

Date of Formation-1 December 1963, Area-16,579 sq km, Capital- KOHIMA. Population (2011)- 19,78,502 Male -: 10,24,649, Female-9,53,853.  Density-: 119 persons per sq km(2011), Sex Ratio (2011)- 931 female per 1000 male.  Literacy (2011) 79.55%, Male- 82.75% Female-70.01%  No. of Districts-11 Village-1 ,278,  Towns : 9, Principal Cities/Towns : Kohima, Dimapur, Tuensang, Mokokchung, Mon, Phek, Wokha, • Languages : English, Ao, Kanyak, Angami, Seema and Lotha, Per Capita Income : NA (2004-05 : Rs. 20,998), State Symbols- State Bird : Blyth’s Tragopan, State Flower : Rhododendron, State Animal : Mithun, State Tree : Alder, Members of Legislative Assembly : 60, Members of Lok Sabha-1, Members of Rajya Sabha : 1.

jhumming. Under the system, forest lands are cut down and burnt and crops are planted in the burnt out lands. After a crop or two, these lands are abandoned and fresh forests are cut down and burnt. This leads to soil erosion and permanent loss of fertility of the soil. Now the government is encouraging terraced cultivation, form forestry, orchard plantation, cash crop plantation and control bounding so as to discourage jhum cultivation. The, people of Nagaland have an artistic sense in many crafts. They carve beautiful designs with their simple equipments like dao.

They use homemade colours and pieces of bamboo to make beautiful decorative materials. The State has achieved remarkable progress in small and medium industries. Big industries are being planned although at present there is only one sugar mill, one pulp and paper mill and one plywood factory. One cement factory is also coming up. Other major industries are sericulture and bee keeping. There are 1850 small scale industriai units. Among the new industries are plastic moulding hume pipes, polythene bags and rubber chappals.

 • Agriculture & Forest- Agriculture is the most important economic activity in Naga-land, with more than 90% of the population employed in agriculture. Crops include rice, corn, millets, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes, and threads. However, Nagaland still depends on the import of food supplies from other states. The widespread practice of jhum, tilling, has led to soil erosion and loss of fertility, particularly in the eastern districts. Only the Angami and Chakesang tribes in the Kohima and Phek districts use terracing techniques. And most of the Aos, Lothas, and Zeliangs in Mokokchung, Wokha, and Peren districts respectively till in the many valleys of the district. Forestry is also an important source of income. Cottage industries such as weaving, woodwork, and pottery are also an important source of revenue. Tourism is important, but largely limited due to insurgency since the last five decades. Nagaland has a unique landholding pattern. In that almost 90% of the area is privately owned. There is no landlessness among Nagas, as each Naga possesses land, either his own, or inherited from his family, clan or village. Total forest area is 2,875 sq km in Nagaland.

• Industry The process of industrialisation in the State is in its infancy but the need to have more industries has been well-recognised. The Nagaland Sugar Mill at Dimapur has an installed capacity of 1,000 toned per day. There is a pulp and paper mill at Tuli and a plywood factory at Tizit. A Khandsari mill with a daily crushing capacity of 200 metric tonnes is in operation. Handloom and handicrafts are important cottage industries which are mainly being managed by cooperative societies. An industrial growth centre near Dimapur is under construction. The Nagaland industrial Development Corporation is the premier promotional organisation in providing guidance and capital assistance to enterpreneurs. The Mini Cement Plant at Wazeho has commenced production. • People The population of Nagaland is entirely tribal. There are many separate tribes and sub-tribes among the Nagas with their own distinctive language and cultural features. Kohima district is the home of the Angamis, Zeliangs, Rengmas, Kukis, Semas and other minor groups. Mokokchung is the home of Aos, Wokha district of the Lothas and Zunheboto district of the States. Tuensang district is the home of the Chang, the Samgtam, the Khemungan, the Yimchunger, the Phom and other minor groups. Mon district is the home of the Konyaks. It is this people who chiefly practise Awn cultivation.

 Districts of Nagaland- District- Dimapur, Area (sq km) – 927, Population (2011 census) 3,79,769, Headquarters- Dimapur, Kohima 3,144 2,70,063 Kohima. Phek 2,026 1,63,294, Phek. Mokokchung  1,615, 1,93,171, Mokokchang. Mon- 1,876, 2,50,671, Mon. Tuensang- 4,228, 1,96,801, Tuensang. Wokha 1,628, 1,66,239, Wokha. Zunheboto- 1,255, 1,41,014, Ziunheboto. Kiphire- NA, 74,033, Kiphire. Longleng- NA, 50,593, Longleng. Peren- NA, 94,954, Peren .

• Arts & Crafts Naga women are excellent weavers. They carve beautiful designs on bamboo and weave colourful shawls. The people also make conical carrying baskets called Akhi and Akha. The Chakhesang and Angami baskets are so closely woven that they are practically waterlight. The Konyak tribe is famous for wood carving. They also make striking jewellery and pottery.

• Festivals Some of the important festivals are Sekrenyi, Moatsu, Tuluni and Tokhu Emong. All tribes of Nagaland celebrate their district seasonal festivals with pageantry of colour and a feast of music.

• Tourist ‘Centres Tourist attractions include War Cemetery in Kohima, historic ruins of Kachari Kingdom, Dimapur, Chui Village and Dzukou valley.

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